Infos climat FLASH INFO du Portail du CILSS dans le domaine du Changement Climatique et de la Gestion Durable des Terres en Afrique de l'Ouest

International climate governance

This article intends to provide a brief review about the last decade’s negotiations on international climate governance.
It is necessary, in introduction, to reconsider two Multilateral Environmental Agreements, the Agreement on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and on desertification control (UNCCD) that all deal with sustainable development, including issues related to food security, the heart of the CILSS mandate, are taken into account.
These agreements have many points of convergence, including the two types of response advocated by the UNFCCC to combat climate change (adaptation and mitigation) that bind to those of the UNCCD (development of the desertification control and mitigation of drought)
The following parts will thus be discussed.
1 / The global scientific governance: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
2 / The process of international negotiations on climate
3 / Policy documents at the subregional level
4 / Policy documents at the national level

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1 / The global scientific governance: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
It is important, first to remind the creation, under the aegis of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme and the WMO (World Meteorological Organization), of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) in 1988.
This group of experts meets and regularly publishes reports (evaluation reports, technical reports, methodology reports). These reports are accepted by the scientific community but have especially the role of extension and making technical climate data available to the general public and policy makers. After 1990, 1995, 2001 and 2007, the fifth report is expected for 2013. All these reports are available on the IPCC website.

2 / The process of international negotiations on climate UNFCCC
One will retain the adoption on May 9, 1992 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio. This agreement binds the signatories (the Convention in 2012 received 195 instruments of ratification) by a non-binding cooperation to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Effect and focuses on three main principles:
    the precautionary principle,
    the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities,
    the principle of the right to development.
The supreme body of the UNFCCC is the Conference of Parties, comprising countries that have ratified or acceded to the UNFCCC. Periodic meetings are held to monitor the progress of the Convention and take decisions and actions to achieve the objectives of the Convention.
Following the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, 30 industrialized countries (signatories to Annex 1) are legally obliged to reduce their greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5.2%, average (effective in 2005).
It is expected the annual meetings of the Parties (Conferences of the Parties). In 2011, for example, the meeting was held in Durban (South Africa) and in 2012 in Doha (Qatar) COP 18 (November 26 to December 7, 2012).

3 / Policy documents at the subregional level
At the regional level, environmental policy with strategic directions on climate change has been developed since 2004. These include a West African regional strategy for preparing and adaptation, on the initiative of the CILSS, the West African Water Partnership (GWP-WAWP) and the International Union for Conservation of nature in West Africa (IUCN-ROWA).
At the West African scale, the ECOWAS and UEMOA are the political, economic and monetary integration organizations in collaboration with technical institutions such as CILSS or basin organizations (NBA, AVV, and OMVS), support climate change policies. The PASR and RVAO, sub-regional action plan to reduce vulnerability to climate change in West Africa, for example, should address these issues.

4 / Policy documents at the national level
At national level, national communications have been published since 1994 (date of entry into force of the international instrument which is the UNFCCC), include an inventory of Greenhouse Gas and also possible adaptation strategies. To quantify these strategies, we note the development, under the auspices of UNDP, of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) for the least developed countries. These documents provide a list of ranked priority adaptation activities and projects identified by the country to enable the adaptation of populations to climate change. These NAPA go along with the official documents and are available on the website of the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change but also partially included in the resources section of this website.

In terms of West African countries that have ratified the legal instruments of international climate governance to facilitate the integration of climate change issues in national policy, institutional and inter-ministerial frameworks have been implemented such as national councils for sustainable development, national committees on climate change).

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